Escitalopram oxalate is an orally administered selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), an antidepressant approved by the FDA to treat mental conditions like depression or anxiety. The FDA approval status allows using the medication to treat anxiety (generalized anxiety disorder) in adults and major depressive disorder in adults and adolescents who older 12 years.
Escitalopram oxalate was observed to be highly selective for serotonin reuptake inhibition. The mechanism of escitalopram antidepressant action is considered to be linked to increase of serotonergic activity in the central nervous system (CNS) resulting from its inhibition of CNS neuronal reuptake of serotonin (5-HT). Escitalopram oxalate increases the activity and levels of the unbalanced chemicals in the brain and improves symptoms of depression and anxiety.
Escitalopram oxalate is available in a form of tablets. Escitalopram is produced under the brand name Lexapro.
The active ingredient of the medication is escitalopram oxalate. The other inactive components of the medication are: butylated hydroxyl anisole, butylated hydroxy toluene, colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, silicified microcrystalline cellulose, and talc.
Escitalopram tablets USP are film-coated, containing the main component in the doses of 5 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg.
The 5 mg tablets are white, round, biconvex film-coated imprinted with ‘F’ on one side and ‘53’ on the other side. The 5 mg tablets are packaged in the bottles of 30, 100, 500 and 10000 tablets.
The 10 mg are white, oval shaped, biconvex film-coated with ‘F’ imprint on one side and ‘54’ on the other side. The 10 mg tablets are packaged in the bottles of 30, 100, 500 and 5000 tablets.
The 20 mg tablets are white, oval shaped, biconvex film-coated with ‘F’ on one side and ‘56’ on the other side. The 20 mg tablets are packaged in the bottles of 30, 100, 500 and 3000 tablets.
All three dosages of the medication are also supplied in the 10 x 10 Unit-dose Tablets.
Proper storage of the medication: should be stored at temperature 20° to 25°C, away from children, pets.
The pharmacokinetic parameters of escitalopram are dose- proportional. The average half-life of the medication is from 27 to 32 hours. The medication is metabolized mainly in the liver.
The max blood concentrations of the medication are achieved in about 5 hours post dose. The way how the medication is absorbed is not affected by.
The Vd (volume of distribution) of escitalopram is about 12 L/kg. Escitalopram is 56% bound to plasma proteins.
Escitalopram is metabolized to S-DCT and S-didemethylcitalopram (S-DDCT).
In adolescent patients the pharmacokinetic parameters are similar to adult patients. So there is no need for special dose adjustments for patients from 12 to 17 years of age.
For geriatric patients older than 65 years of age it is recommended to use lower dose of the drug due to Escitalopram AUC and half-life increases in such patients up to 50%.
In patients with reduced liver function the oral clearance of the drug is decreased by 37% and half-life is doubled. So the dose of 10 mg is the recommended for such patients.
In patients with reduced kidney function the oral clearance of drug is decreased by 17%. There is no special adjustment of dosage for such patients.